Expressive Therapies for Sexual Issues: A Social Work Perspective

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Expressive Therapies For Sexual Issues A Social Work Perspective

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Course Descriptions

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Report incorrect product info or prohibited items. Loue, Sana. Out of stock. Delivery not available. Pickup not available. Add to List. After repeated associations between the unpleasant stimulus and the behavior, the client can learn to stop the unwanted behavior. This can be done via reality, imagination, or virtual reality. A popular form of exposure therapy is systematic desensitization, wherein a calm and pleasant state is gradually associated with increasing levels of anxiety-inducing stimuli.

Virtual reality therapy : Virtual reality therapy provides realistic, computer-based simulations that involve watching others performing the desired behaviors. Flooding is the general technique in which an individual is exposed to anxiety-provoking stimuli, while at the same time prevented from having any avoidance responses. It is often used to treat phobias, anxiety, and other stress-related disorders.

For example, flooding might be used to help a client who is suffering from an intense fear of birds. The individual may be forced to stay in a room with a harmless bird for an extended period of time and over repeated sessions. The theory is that after a while, the individual will realize that nothing bad is happening and the fear response will diminish.

Relaxation training is a type of behavior therapy that involves clients learning to lower arousal to reduce their stress by tensing and releasing certain muscle groups throughout their body. Social skills training teaches clients skills to access natural reinforcers and lessen life punishment. Skinner , and the United Kingdom Rachman and Eysenck.

Each had its own distinct approach to viewing behavior problems. Skinner developed the idea of operant conditioning in , when he tested the learning of rats through reinforcement and punishment in what is now called a Skinner box. Exposure therapy was first reported in by Mary Cover Jones, who is considered the mother of behavior therapy. Jones used exposure therapy with a boy named Peter to help him overcome his fear of rabbits.

In the second half of the 20th century, many therapists coupled behavior therapy with the cognitive therapy of Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis, forming cognitive behavioral therapy CBT.

Behavior therapy has proven effective in many areas and has been used to address intimacy in couples, relationships, forgiveness, chronic pain, anorexia, chronic distress, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and obesity. Behavioral applications to these problems have left clinicians with considerable tools for enhancing therapeutic effectiveness. CBT has been proven to perform slightly better at treating co-occurring depression. Systematic desensitization has been shown to successfully treat phobias about heights, driving, and insects, as well as any anxiety that a person may have.

Virtual reality treatment has been shown to be effective for a fear of heights; it has also been shown to help with the treatment of a variety of anxiety disorders. Other critics have argued that ABA and other behavior therapies are too rigid in their approach, and that effective treatment requires an acknowledgement of the subconscious as well as observable behaviors. Some have argued that certain types of behavior therapy may make a patient too dependent on external rewards rather than internal motivation to change. Finally, many have critiqued the use of punishment in certain forms of behavior therapy as inhumane.

Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies address the interplay between dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors, and biased cognitions. Cognitive therapy CT and cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT are closely related; however CBT is an umbrella category of therapies that includes cognitive therapy. CBT is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive processes through a number of goal-oriented, systematic procedures. The category refers to behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and therapies based on a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles and research, including dialectical behavior therapy. Basic tenets of CBT : The diagram depicts how emotions, thoughts, and behaviors all influence each other. Centered around that is a feedback loop between behavior, thoughts, and feelings, all of which are the target of CBT.

Cognitive therapy seeks to help the client overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking and behavior, as well as emotional responses. This involves helping patients to develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors. Treatment is based on collaboration between the patient and therapist and on testing beliefs. Some examples include:. Cognitive biases : Cognitive biases are maladaptive patterns of judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion.


In this way, cognitive therapy encourages people to see that some of their thoughts are mistaken. Cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT works to solve current problems and change unhelpful thinking and behavior. The basic tenet of CBT is that emotions both adaptive and maladaptive occur because of our interpretation of an event, not because of the event itself. At its most basic level, it is a combination of cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. While rooted in rather different theories, these two therapy types have been characterized by a constant reference to experimental research to test hypotheses.

CBT is one of the most widely researched and most effective treatments for depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance abuse disorders. When someone is distressed or anxious, the way they see and evaluate themselves can become negative. CBT therapists and clients work together to see the link between negative thoughts and mood. This empowers people to assert control over negative emotions and to change the way they behave. CBT assumes that changing maladaptive thinking leads to change in affect and behavior.

Therapists help individuals to challenge maladaptive thinking and help them replace it with more realistic and effective thoughts, or encourage them to take a more open, mindful, and aware posture toward those thoughts. Modern forms of CBT include a number of diverse but related techniques such as exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, cognitive processing therapy, cognitive therapy, relaxation training, acceptance and commitment therapy ACT , and dialectical behavior therapy DBT , which is discussed in more detail below. Dialectical behavior therapy DBT is a form of psychotherapy that was originally developed to treat people with borderline personality disorder BPD.

DBT involves a combination of standard cognitive-behavioral techniques e. Thus, from a DBT perspective, the behaviors that are considered maladaptive in BPD, in people with eating disorders, and in sexual abuse survivors, are negatively reinforced, as they function to regulate emotions and decrease feelings of distress. Consequently, helping clients to develop more adaptive strategies to cope with their emotions should help patients improve their maladaptive behaviors.

These strategies include mindfulness, emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and interpersonal effectiveness. The modern roots of CBT can be traced to the development of behavior therapy in the early 20th century, the development of cognitive therapy in the s, and the subsequent merging of the two.

During the s and s, behavioral therapy became widely utilized by researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Africa, who were inspired by the behaviorist learning theories of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and Clark L. Cognitive therapy was developed by psychiatrist Aaron Beck in the s. One of the first forms of cognitive-behavior therapy was rational emotive therapy RET , which was founded by Albert Ellis and grew out of his dislike of Freudian psychoanalysis Daniel, n.

During the s and s, cognitive and behavioral techniques were merged into cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pivotal to this merging was the successful development of treatments for panic disorder by David M.

Clark in the UK and David H. Barlow in the US. Over time, cognitive-behavioral therapy came to be known not only as a therapy, but as an umbrella category for all cognitive-based psychotherapies. DBT is a modified form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that was originally developed in the late 20th century by psychology researcher Marsha Linehan to treat people who are chronically suicidal and those with borderline personality disorder BPD.

In adults, CBT has been shown to have effectiveness and a role in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, chronic low back pain, personality disorders, psychosis, substance use disorders, and in the adjustment, depression, and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia and post-spinal-cord injuries. Evidence has shown CBT is effective in helping treat schizophrenia, and it is now offered in most treatment guidelines. Some meta-analyses find CBT more effective than psychodynamic therapy and equal to other therapies in treating anxiety and depression.